Friday, February 26, 2016

MMWR: Zika Among Pregnant Travelers - Zika and Sexual Transmission

Credit PAHO

















# 11,070


The CDC continues to roll out an impressive amount of guidance and research information on the Zika epidemic, and this afternoon has released the following two new MMWRs.

Follow the links to read them in their entirety. 



  • Zika Virus Infection Among U.S. Pregnant Travelers — August 2015–February 2016 FEBRUARY 26, 2016
     
    On January 19, 2016, CDC released interim guidelines recommending pregnant women who had traveled to areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus and who had symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease be tested for Zika virus infection. These guidelines were updated and expanded on February 5 to offer Zika virus testing to all pregnant women with Zika virus exposure, regardless of presence of symptoms. As of February 17, 2016, nine pregnant travelers with Zika virus infection from the United States had been identified. No Zika virus–related hospitalizations or deaths were reported among pregnant women. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (18 weeks’ and 34 weeks’ gestation) are continuing without known complications.

    Summary

    What is already known about this topic?Because of the risk for Zika virus infection and its possible association with adverse pregnancy outcomes, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus. CDC also released guidelines for Zika virus testing for pregnant women with a history of travel while pregnant to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission.
    What is added by this report?
    This report provides preliminary information on testing for Zika virus infection of U.S. pregnant women who had traveled to areas with Zika virus transmission. As of February 17, 2016, nine U.S. pregnant travelers with Zika virus infection had been identified. No Zika virus–related hospitalizations or deaths were reported among pregnant women. Pregnancy outcomes included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (18 weeks’ and 34 weeks’ gestation) are continuing without known complications.
    What are the implications for public health practice?In this small case series, Zika virus infection during pregnancy was associated with a range of outcomes, including early pregnancy losses, congenital microcephaly, and apparently healthy infants. Additional information will be available in the future from a newly established CDC registry for U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants.


  • Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission — Continental United States, 2016 FEBRUARY 26, 2016
     
    CDC released interim guidance for prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus on February 5, 2016, and updated guidelines on February 26, 2016. This report provides information on six confirmed and probable cases of sexual transmission of Zika virus from male travelers to female nontravelers.

    Summary

    What is already known about this topic?Zika virus is spread primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, though recent reports have described two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus, and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia. CDC released interim guidance for prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus on February 5, 2016.
    What is added by this report?This report provides information on six confirmed and probable cases of sexual transmission of Zika virus from male travelers to female nontravelers. This suggests that sexual transmission of Zika virus might be more common than previously reported.
    What are the implications for public health practice?Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission who have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex (i.e., vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy.

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