Last December in DVBID: Final West Nile Report For 2012, we saw a preliminary accounting of last year’s West Nile virus impact across the country. From all appearances, 2012 appeared on track to be a record year.
Total cases 5,387 cases
Neuroinvasive cases 2,734 (51%)
Mild cases 2,653 (49%)
Neuroinvasive cases (which present with meningitis, encephalitis, or flaccid Paralysis) are severe enough that they result in hospitalization and diagnosis, and so they are considered the best indicator of the scope of each year’s epidemic.
Mild cases – called West Nile Fever – often go undiagnosed, with probably only 2%-3% being identified.
Meaning that with more than 2,600 mild cases reported, the true incidence was probably in excess of 100,000 infections.
Yesterday the CDC released their Final West Nile virus national surveillance data for 2012 - which adds in several hundred cases not counted in December, along with more than 40 additional deaths – making 2012 the deadliest year for West Nile in the United States since it first arrived in 2009.
This from the CDC.
In 2012, all 48 contiguous states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported West Nile virus infections in people, birds, or mosquitoes. A total of 5,674 cases of West Nile virus disease in people, including 286 deaths, were reported to CDC. Of these, 2,873 (51%) were classified as neuroinvasive disease (such as meningitis or encephalitis) and 2,801 (49%) were classified as non-neuroinvasive disease. The numbers of neuroinvasive, non-neuroinvasive, and total West Nile virus disease cases reported in 2012 are the highest since 2003.
The press release from the CDC follows:
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) today released the final 2012 national surveillance data for West Nile virus activity. To access the information, please visit www.cdc.gov/westnile.
A total of 5,674 cases of West Nile virus disease in people, including 286 deaths, were reported to CDC from 48 states (excluding Alaska and Hawaii). Of all West Nile virus disease cases reported, 2,873 (51 percent) were classified as neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis). The dates of illness onset (when the patients’ illness began) ranged from March through December 2012.
The numbers of neuroinvasive, non-neuroinvasive, and total West Nile virus disease cases reported in 2012 are the highest since 2003. The number of deaths is the highest since cases of WNV disease were first detected in the United States in 1999.
In 2012, 62 percent of all reported West Nile virus cases—were concentrated in California, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, , Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Texas. Texas reported 33 percent of all reported West Nile virus cases in 2012.
Last summer’s outbreak likely resulted from many factors, including higher-than-normal temperatures that influenced mosquito and bird abundance, the replication of the virus in its host mosquitoes, and interactions of birds and mosquitoes in hard-hit areas. Because the factors that lead to West Nile virus disease outbreaks are complex, CDC cannot predict where and when they will occur.
Each spring, CDC releases the final West Nile virus case surveillance data for the previous year. The data include confirmed and probable human disease cases reported to ArboNET by state and local health departments. ArboNET is the national, electronic surveillance system established by CDC to assist states in tracking illness caused by West Nile virus and other viruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks.
Last year's large outbreak is a reminder that it is important for people to protect themselves from West Nile virus, especially as we head into summer and mosquitoes become more active. The best way to prevent West Nile virus disease is to avoid mosquito bites:
- Use insect repellents when you go outdoors. Use repellents containing DEET, picaridin, IR3535, and para-menthane-diol (PMD) because these repellents provide longer-lasting protection than other products. Always follow the instructions on the label.
- Wear long sleeves and pants at dawn and dusk when many mosquitoes are most active.
- Repair or install screens on windows and doors. Use air conditioning, if you have it.
- Help reduce the numbers of mosquitoes around your home. Empty standing water from items such as gutters, flowerpots, buckets, and kiddie pools. Change birdbaths weekly.
With summer temperatures rising across much of the United States, mosquito season cannot be far behind. So, if you live in, or are visiting one of these areas, many health departments urge you to follow the `5 D’s’.
Once again, this summer we’ll be keeping an eye on the level of West Nile, EEE, Dengue, and other arbovirus activity around the country.