Tuesday, February 28, 2017

ESA: Epidemiological Update On H5N8/H5N5 In Europe - Feb 28th


Throughout this winter's remarkable avian flu epizootic in Europe,  three entities have provided us with the most detailed accounts and summaries; The UK's DEFRA, Germany's FLI (Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut), and France's ESA (Epidemiosurveillance Santé Animale).

Reporting 373 HPAI H5N8 outbreaks in less than 90 days, France has been perhaps the hardest hit nation.

Today, the ESA has published their latest summary for France - and the rest of Europe. I've translated and excerpted only portions of the full report.

Follow the link below for the full report including graphs, maps, and links.

HPAI epidemiological situation in Europe since October 2016: point situation 27/02/2017

Submitted by Alizé MERCIER on 28. February 2017 - 3:33 p.m..

International Health Surveillance (IVS) ESA platform - France
NRL avian influenza laboratory ANSES Ploufragan - France
National Office for Hunting and Wildlife - France

Source: Data updated on 02.26.2017 (inclusive) ADNS / OIE / EB The Minister of Agriculture

Two virus highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) - H5N5 and H5N8- currently circulating in Europe. The ADNS tool was not adapted to the notification of new subtypes H5N8 and H5N5, leading the country to notify the homes as "H5Nx" with possibility of adding comments in free subtype, which is what certain countries.
In light of these comments, the ADNS statements are distributed as follows: H5Nx (n = 361), H5N5 (n = 18), H5N8 (n = 1600) and Joint H5N5 / H5N8 (n = 1). The HPAI viruses are treated in their entirety in this note. Data analysis takes into account the sometimes changes the ADNS alerts after the first statement, including the accuracy of some serotype H5Nx homes (which are then taken in H5N5 or H5N8 outbreaks).

Since the latter situation on 20 February, 202 new outbreaks of HPAI were reported in Europe (European Union - EU - plus Switzerland), mainly in Germany (66 H5N8 outbreaks in wild birds and 2 farms) and France (39 H5N8 outbreaks in livestock and 6 in the avifauna).
The total number of outbreaks and cases of reported HPAI continues to increase and is now 1 980 1 082 of which in wild birds (73 species affected), 861 livestock and 37 in the captive birds (Tables 1 and 2). For cons, the number of affected countries remains the same.

Several countries reported the presence of virus of subtype H5N5 in wild birds (1 in Germany, 1 case in the Netherlands, 1 case in Montenegro, 2 in Italy, 1 in Croatia, 1 case in Greece, 2 in Poland, Slovenia 3, and since the last update, 1 case in Hungary), in farms with three outbreaks of H5N5 in Germany, and in the captive birds (1 case in Italy, 1 case in the Republic Czech). In addition, the Netherlands reported a mixed case of H5N8 infection / H5N5 in wild birds in November, 2016.

The interactive map of HPAI outbreaks is available on the ESA platform site ( link ).

The HPAI situation in France is detailed every two weeks (last note dated February 24: link ).

HP H5N8 virus is also present beyond Europe in the following countries: Uganda, Cameroon, Nigeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Israel, Kuwait, Iran, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Russia, India, China, Chinese Taipei South Korea (source: OIE / FAO). A review of the HPAI situation in Africa February 21, 2017 is available on the Platform website ( link ).

Figure 1 shows the evolution of the number of weekly returns and outbreaks of HPAI cases in Europe. Aggregate data for Europe (Switzerland included), with situations very different country from the standpoint surveillance and epidemiology, provide overall indications. At the macroscopic scale, it is interesting to note that the curves "farms" and "savages" have similar developments until the third week in 2017, generally parallel, and with a time lag of two weeks, the curve " wild "before the" farms "curve. We find the same gap between farmed and wild compartments in the aggregate representing the number of new countries reporting their first home / cases of HPAI (Figure 2).

The evolution of these curves would be consistent with contamination of livestock by wildlife and suggests a lack of proper development of the disease in the livestock compartment, overall on the European continent (which does not preclude situations particular where locally there might be an important secondary distribution between farms). However, this interpretation must be taken with caution, variations being a dependent of pressure from oversight in different populations, and the other hand certainly different in different countries (for Hungary and France who said a large number of cases in livestock but not in wild birds and in contrast to Germany and Switzerland reporting a large number of cases in wild birds and little or no animal husbandry). In the last notes, the number of cases observed in the last week is adjusted from one week to the other by late returns. so it should not draw conclusions from the data last week.

The reported mortality in livestock vary according to species, but also within the same species, and is only available for a limited number of households. For mono-specific farming, the mortality ranges from 0.06 to 33% to the species Gallus gallus , around 20% in turkey farms (but with a 100% mortality rate reported in a home in France) and from 0 to 70% in waterfowl. Despite all the caution that one must have in interpreting (time of intervention in relation to infection, farms in epidemiological link could be the beginning of infection, etc.), it should be noted that this strain appears to have an unusual virulence in domestic waterfowl.

The 73 different species of birds in affected wild birds in Europe with their families are:

    Accipitridae  : Goshawk, spp Eagle, Harris Hawk, Rough-legged Hawk, Buzzard, Sparrowhawk, White-tailed Eagle.
    Anatidae: Red-breasted Goose, Brent Goose, Canada Goose, Barnacle Goose, Gadwall, Mallard, Muscovy Duck, Northern Pintail, Wigeon, Whooper Swan, Black Swan, Mute Swan, Common Eider, Common Pochard, Scaup , tufted Duck, Common Goldeneye eye, Common Merganser, Common Scoter, red-crested Pochard, Pink-footed Goose, Greylag Goose, Swan Goose, Egyptian Goose, Bean Goose, White-fronted Goose, White-fronted Goose, Teal , Shelduck
    Ardeidae: Grey Heron, Egret beef, Great Egret
    Ciconiidés : Cigogne blanche
    Colombidae: wood pigeon, collared dove
    Corvidae: Hooded Crow, Carrion Crow, Raven, Magpie
    Dromaiidés: Emus
    Falcon: Common Kestrel, Peregrine Falcon, Saker
    Gulls: Herring Gull, Black-backed Gull, Mew Gull, Yellow-legged Gull, Gull, Black-headed Gull
    Pelecanidés : Pélican blanc
    Phalacrocoracidés  : Cormoran pygmée, Grand cormoran,
    Podicipedidae: Little Grebe, Great Crested Grebe
    Psittacidés : Perroquet jaco
    Rallidae: Crested Coot, Eurasian Coot, Common Moorhen
    Scolopacidae  : Green Sandpiper, Curlew spp.
    Owls  : Eagle Owl, Ural Owl
    Thrushes  : Blackbird, Fieldfare, Song Thrush


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