Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Macao MOH Notified Of H9N2 Case In Jiangsu Province

Jiangsu Province - Credit Wikipedia


Via the Macao Government News portal we are notified of another human H9N2 infection on the Mainland - this time from Jiangsu Province - involving a 9 year-old boy reportedly hospitalized in serious condition.
In 2018, China reported 7 human cases (see FluTrackers List) - and in February we saw the 1st reported case of 2019 - although given the limited surveillance and testing, many more mild and moderate cases likely go unreported.
Avian H9N2 can be found in poultry across much of Asia and parts of the Middle East, and is famous for its ability to mix its genes (via reassortment) with other viruses in order to produce new - potentially dangerous - new hybrids (see J. Virology:Genetic Compatibility of Reassortants Between Avian H5N1 & H9N2 Influenza Viruses).
H9N2 viruses continue to evolve, and in recent years have showed signs of better adaptation to mammalian hosts (see Virology: Receptor Binding Specificity Of H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses).
So, while H9N2 may not be at the top of our pandemic threats list, it is regarded as having at least some pandemic potential by our CDC (see  IRAT SCORE), several candidate vaccines have been developed, and it continues continues to evolve and interact with other avian viruses.

This from the Macao Government website:

Jiangsu confirmed case of human infection of H9N2 avian influenza 

source: Health Bureau
Release date: At 19:35 on March 26 2019

Health Bureau today (March 26) received notification Mainland health sector, Jiangsu Province confirmed case of human infection of H9N2 avian influenza. According to the briefing refers the patient was a 9-year-old male student, now living in Taizhou City, Jiangsu Province, on March 15 symptoms, March 16 hospitalized, severe illness now, before the onset of the live poultry stalls.

Influenza A viruses are divided into (A), B (B), propionate (C) 3 type influenza can cause a global pandemic, so it is particularly important; generally caused by hepatitis B endemic, often only cause sporadic hepatitis . Influenza virus surface with hemagglutinin ( H emagglutinin, referred to as H) and the enzyme neuraminidase enzyme ( N euraminidase, referred to as N) two major antigens; hemagglutinin consensus type 1 to 16, a total of 1 to neuraminidase type 9.

Influenza virus by different combinations of H and N are named, such as the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 and now H7N9, H10N8 and so on. Influenza is important that the H and N antigens easily changed to produce a new subtype; but human immunity to the new subtype is not high, so often cause varying degrees of popularity. When a new flu virus appears in humans, because humans no resistance, it is possible worldwide pandemic occurs. The reason is a new type of influenza virus and human influenza virus genes non-human influenza virus (such as avian influenza virus) of recombination, or subtype old again, or animal influenza virus changes the host specificity.

For the prevention of influenza infection, health authorities urged the public to note the following:

  • Avoid visiting, and there appeared human infection with influenza bird flu epidemic areas of markets, farms and other birds have the sale or display of place;
  • Avoiding contact with sick birds or other animals and their secretions, excretions; if contact should wash their hands;
  • Do not eat undercooked poultry meat, offal, blood products and eggs;
  • Personal hygiene, wash hands frequently;
  • Such as fever, cough, shortness of breath and other symptoms should wear a mask and seek medical advice as soon as possible, and detailed travel history doctors and animal contact history.
Health information can be found in the bureau's website ( or call the hotline 28700800.